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The term, hybrid, is due to the motor being operated under the combined principles of permanent magnet and variable reluctance. The most popular step angle for the hybrid stepping motor is 1.8 degrees, or 200 steps per revolution.
The Hybrid Stepper is the motor solution for precision movements or higher speed applications in factory and office automation.
The construction of a hybrid stepper motor is characterized by having a coil, multi-toothed stator and rotor poles with a permanent magnet. This construction offers small step angle, sufficient torque and speed.
A 200 step per revolution (1.8°) step motor with 2 phases "on" (4 phase instant) has 50 rotor teeth on each rotor yoke. These are referred to as poles. The stator has 8 poles. A phase state in a motor with permanent magnets is considered a single polarity current or voltage. A cycle is considered a positive and negative current or voltage.
These motors are usually wound with a bifilar winding, this makes it possible to drive a motor from a single polarity voltage without using reversing switches or transistors to reverse the current to the motor windings. Each of the poles has 2 windings and is mistakenly called a 4 phase motor because of this. If the motor is driven from a bipolar drive or ac power source only 1 winding per pole is required.
The DC power supply is switched to each phase in sequence to operate a stepping motor. Ordinary DC or AC power supplies will not run a stepping motor unless the driving circuit includes a switching circuit. The signal circuit is used to generate pulses, change or stop frequencies and to generate reversing signals. The logic circuit distributes signal pulses to each wire according to the number of phases and the excitation method.
Unipolar Drives Motor phase winding current is switched in only one direction (typically to ground).